The measurement of the imperfections in the optical system of the eye, measured in microns as root mean square (RMS). The use of aberrometry in developing better lens systems for telescopes is called adaptive optics and has been used by astronomers for years. It has only recently been applied to the eye, enabling more accurate refractive outcomes in LASIK surgery.
gradually remove material from or erode (a surface or object) by melting, evaporation, frictional action, etc., or erode (material) in this way. Excimer laser ‘ablates’ corneal tissue.
The area of tissue that is removed during laser eye surgery.
Clearness, or sharpness of vision.
is medication that attempts to eliminate pain impulses from reaching the brain. In general anaesthesia this is accomplished by putting the patient asleep. Most eye surgery is accomplished by local anaesthesia with drops or injections of anaesthetic medications either directly applied to the eye or injected around the eye.
The clear fluid between the anterior chamber of the eye (which is the space between the cornea and the lens). It is continually produced by the ciliary body, the part of the eye that lies just behind the iris.
is a surgical correction of corneal astigmatism often combined with LASIK correction.
A distortion of the image on the retina caused by irregularities in the cornea or lens. Regular astigmatism causes light rays to come to a focus at two separate points, 90 degrees apart, rather than at one point as occurs in eyes that focus without astigmatism.
Best possible vision a an eye can see with corrective lenses, measured in terms of Snellen lines on an eye chart .
Eyeglasses with two lenses for each frame. With bifocals, the most convex lenses (for close viewing) are in the lower half of the frame and the least convex lenses on the upper for distance vision.
Simultaneous use of the two eyes. Normal binocular vision yields a stereoscopic image and parallax-induced depth perception.
The medical term for Monovision, which is the purposeful adjustment of one eye for near vision and the other eye for distance vision.
An opacity (clouding) in the internal natural lens of the eye. Most patients will eventually develop cataracts as they age but not all cataracts interfere with vision and so they do not all have to be removed.
is composed of ciliary muscles and processes. The ciliary processes produces nutrients for the eye such as the Aqueous Humor. The ciliary muscles assist in accommodation or focusing of the lens for vision. When the ciliary muscle relaxes, it flattens the lens, generally improving the focus for farther objects. When it contracts, the lens becomes more convex (curved), generally improving the focus for closer objects.
Evaluation of the complete visual system.
A thin membrane that covers the sclera (the white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids.
Turning of the eyes inwards so that they are both “aimed” towards a near object being viewed. Normally works in harmony with divergence which is used for more distant objects.
The clear, front part of the eye that provides 70% of the eye’s refractive power. The cornea is the first part of the eye that bends (or refracts) the light and provides most of the focusing power. The cornea is approximately 500 microns thick (.5 millimeter) and consists of 5 layers: Epithelium, Bowman’s membrane, Stroma, Descemet’s membrane and Endothelium. The Cornea is reshaped during laser eye surgery.
Shape and steepness of the cornea at the front of the eye.
A circular, hinged portion of the outer layer of the cornea, lifted in Step One of LASIK surgery. The corneal flap allows the surgeon to access the inner portion of the cornea in Step Two. The corneal flap is replaced to allow rapid healing and comfort after laser vision correction surgery.
Steepness and thickness of the corneal tissue is measured in corneal topography, and is used not only for screening all patients before refractive surgery like LASIK and SMILE, but also for fitting contacts.
Refers to the degree of astigmatism (uneven roundness) present in the cornea, and corrected in a glasses prescription.
Enlargment of the pupil (space in the middle of the iris) with mydriatic eye drops.
A common condition that occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears to keep the eye moist and comfortable. Common symptoms of dry eye include pain, stinging, burning, scratchiness, and intermittent blurring of vision.
Perfect refraction, which occurs when a normal eye focuses rays of light exactly on the retina. An eye in a state of emmetropia requires no glasses correction.
The layer of cells on the inside surface of the cornea.
A form of PRK where the epithelium is removed with a mechanical microkeratome and the underlying surface is then treated with an excimer laser.
The outermost layer of cells of the cornea and the eye’s first defense against infection.
Excimer lasers emitting ultraviolet light with wavelengths shorter than 350 nm are used in refractive surgery in ophthalmology, using a non-thermal ablation effect to reshape corneal tissue.
Technically called a Snellen chart, a printed or digital visual acuity chart consisting of Snellen optotypes, which are specifically formed letters of the alphabet arranged in rows of decreasing letter size.
Either of two movable, protective, folds of flesh that cover and uncover the front of the eyeball.
The common term for hyperopia, which is the ability to see distance objects more clearly than near objects. Mild farsightedness in young patients is compatible with good vision through accommodation.
Used in the LASIK and SMILE procedures to make a safer and more precise flap than the older mechanical microkeratome technology. It uses a longer wavelength, smaller spot, and shorter duration per pulse than the excimer laser used to reshape the cornea .
Part of the cornea consisting of epithelium , Bowman’s membrane and some stroma , cut with a remaining hinge and lifted up as part of the LASIK procedure.
Furthest point at the back of the eye, consisting of the retina, choroid membrane, optic disc and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope.
A fainter second image or shadow of the object you are viewing sometimes noticed in the first few weeks after LASIK surgery
Scatter from bright light that decreases vision.
An increase in the normal pressure of the eye which gradually damages the optic nerve of the eye resulting in permanent loss of peripheral vision.
Rings around lights due to optical imperfections in or in front of the eye. May occur after cataract surgery with multifocal intraocular lenses.
Corneal clouding that causes the sensation of looking through smoke or fog.
The medical term for farsightedness, which is the ability to see distance objects more clearly than near objects. Mild farsightedness in young patients is compatible with good vision through accommodation.
Light reflected into the eye, off objects in front of the eye. This light contains all the information about the objects (such as color, shadow, motion and detail) that are translated to the brain and allow you to “see”.
a Latin term meaning “in place” or not removed.
The body’s reaction to trauma, infection, or a foreign substance, often associated with pain, heat, redness, swelling, and/or loss of function.
A document disclosing the risks, benefits, and alternatives to a laser eye surgery procedure.
Inside the eye. For example, intraocular lens implants which are inserted inside the eye.
An artificial lens that is inserted inside the eye.
Permanent, artificial lens surgically inserted inside the eye to replace the crystalline lens following cataract surgery or clear lens extraction.
Fluid pressure within the eye created by the continual production and drainage of aqueous fluid in the anterior chamber .
The colored ring of muscle tissue suspended behind the cornea and immediately in front of the lens. The iris controls the amount of light entering the eye.
The surgical removal of corneal tissue.
Inflammation of the cornea.
Prefix indicating relationship to the cornea.
A disorder characterized by an irregular, thinned cornea (cone-shaped) resulting in blurred and distorted images.
Carving of the cornea to reshape it using a laser.
Surgical transplant of the cornea.
A surgical incision (cut) of the cornea.
(Laser-Assisted Sub-Epithelial Keratectomy) a form of PRK where the epithelium is loosened, usually with alcohol, and either reflected like a LASIK flap and replaced after the excimer laser is applied to reshape the cornea. At times the epithelium is simply discarded and allowed to regenerate as it does in standard PRK surgery.
The acronym for ‘light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation’. A laser is an instrument that produces a powerful beam of light that can vaporize tissue.
The acronym for ‘laser assisted in situ keratomileusis’ which refers to creating a flap in the cornea with a femtosecond laser or microkeratome and using an excimer laser to reshape the underlying cornea.
A part of the eye that provides some focusing power. The lens is able to change shape allowing the eye to focus at different distances. Also refers to a refractive correction lens as in spectacle, contact lens or intraocular lens implant.
A surgical tool that holds the eyelids open and which allows the surgeon to gain access to the eye with minimal pressure on the globe.
Thin border that connects the cornea and the sclera.
Refractive errors, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism, that typically can be corrected with SMILE, LASIK, PRK, other laser vision correction procedures, as well as glasses or contact lenses.
Orientation of a particular curve, often used in relation to the cornea .
A surgical device that is affixed to the eye by use of a vacuum ring. When secured, a very sharp blade cuts a layer of the cornea at a predetermined depth.
The purposeful adjustment of one eye for near vision and the other eye for distance vision.
The inability to see distant objects as clearly as near objects due to a steep cornea or elongated eye. Myopia is the medical term for nearsightedness.
The common term for myopia, which is the inability to see distant objects as clearly as near objects.
Occurs when light is focused directly on the retina rather than in front or behind it.
A medical doctor specializing in the diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of visual disorders and eye disease.
Instrument used to examine the interior of the eye. It consists of a perforated mirror arranged to reflect light from a small bulb into the eye.
Examination of the internal structures of the eye using an illumination and magnification system.
An expert in the art and science of making and fitting glasses and may also dispense contact lenses.
A primary eye care provider who diagnoses, manages, and treats disorders of the visual system and eye diseases.
Orthoptists are university-trained, allied health care practitioners who specialize in disorders of eye movements and diagnostic procedures related to disorders of the eye and visual system.
Orthoptists work in many areas including ophthalmology clinics, laser vision, neonatal care, paediatrics, rehabilitation, geriatrics, neurological impairment, community services and ophthalmic technology.
A complication of refractive or laser eye surgery where the achieved amount of correction is more than desired.
Instrument that measures the distance between the top of the corneal epithelium and the bottom of the corneal endothelium used as diagnostic testing device measuring for corneal thickness.
Examination for measuring corneal thickness.
A type of IOL (Intra ocular Lens) that is inserted between the cornea and the lens inside the eye for the purpose of correcting near or farsightedness where LASIK is contraindicated.
Sensitivity to light.
is a type of eye surgery that uses a laser to treat various ocular disorders by removing tissue from the cornea. PTK allows the removal of superficial corneal opacities and surface irregularities. It is similar to photorefractive keratectomy which is used for the treatment of refractive conditions. The common indications for PTK are corneal dystrophies, scars, opacities, bullous keratopathy, recurrent corneal erosions.
The inability to maintain a clear image (focus) as objects are moved closer. Presbyopia is due to reduced elasticity of the lens with increasing age.
The acronym for photorefractive keratectomy which is a procedure involving the removal of the surface layer of the cornea (epithelium) by gentle scraping and use of a computer-controlled excimer laser to reshape the stroma.
A hole in the center of the iris that changes size in response to changes in lighting. It gets larger in dim lighting conditions and gets smaller in brighter lighting conditions.
A surgical procedure designed to correct myopia (nearsightedness) by flattening the cornea using radial cuts.
A test to determine the refractive power of the eye; also, the bending of light as it passes from one medium into another.
Imperfections in the focusing power of the eye, for example, hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism.
also referred to as Clear Lensectomy (CLE). The removal of the natural lens of the eye even though it does not have a cataract to replace it with an artificial lens implant of the proper power to correct nearsightedness or farsightedness in patients not suitable for SMILE, LASIK or PRK.
The ability of an object, such as the eye, to bend light as light passes through it.
Type of eye surgery (such as SMILE, LASIK or laser eye surgery) that corrects refractive errors.
A layer of fine sensory tissue that lines the inside wall of the eye. The retina acts like the film in a camera to capture images, transforms the images into electrical signals, and sends the signals to the brain.
To test the overall condition of the eye and prescribe corrective measures such as glasses, contact lenses or LASIK .
The tough, white, outer layer (coat) of the eyeball that, along with the cornea, protects the eyeball.
Lenses with only one focal length.
Ophthalmic instrument producing a slender beam of light used to illuminate and examine the external and internal parts of the eye.
A common chart used to test visual acuity with black letters of various sizes against a white background.
SMILE which stands for Small Incision Lenticule Extraction, is a single-step procedure to treat short-sightedness and astigmatism. Traditional laser treatment involves cutting a flap from the cornea and uses Excimer laser to change the shape of the cornea. With SMILE there is no flap cut required. A 4mm opening is all SMILE needs. The minimally invasive technique allows significantly more corneal tissue to remain intact.
Most common chart used to test visual acuity with black letters of various sizes against a white background.
Snellen optotypes arranged in horizontal rows called “lines”.
Focusing power of the corrective lens.
The middle, thickest layer of tissue in the cornea.
Procedure for the measurement of intraocular pressure. A test for glaucoma.
A tool used to see the refractive problems that might be present in the cornea. Corneal topography is used not only for screening all patients before refractive surgery like LASIK eye surgery but also for fitting contacts.
a type of Intraocular Lens (IOL) used to correct astigmatism.
Lenses containing three focal lengths, usually arranged with the focus for distance above, intermediate distance in the middle, and near vision below.